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Selected Primary Sources in the Sophia Smith Collection

Personal Papers and Organization Records

Brown Family
Kate Brown (1888-?) was a secretary, traveler, and banker. In 1920, she married Roger S. Greene, who worked for the Rockefeller Foundation in China. They lived in China from 1920 to 1935. Brown's parents, Mr. and Mrs. William T. Brown, travelled to China to visit in 1921. The collection includes William T. Brown's scrapbook from China (with enclosed letters and photos).

Dorothy Hamilton Brush (1894-1968)
Writer, editor of International Planned Parenthood Federation News, and crusader for women's rights, especially birth control. China material in the Brush papers focuses on the Republic of China, including correspondence, pamphlets on family planning services in China (1959-68), reports containing birth control data, and translated quotations from people interviewed about their thoughts on family planning. Some materials in Chinese.
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Florence Ada Cross Boughton (1886-1982)
Pianist and musician. The collection includes information on China, and letters written while the Boughtons lived in China (1913-1915).
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Pauline Frederick (1908-1990)
Journalist and war correspondent. Toured China and Burma in the summer of 1945, and reported on China and the UN. Materials from her 1945 China trip include correspondence in preparation and throughout the trip, cables, itineraries, newspapers in Chinese, statements from Chinese officials, an interview with Frederick, and photographs of Frederick with army personnel and reporters. The Papers (1917-1990) also include material on China and the UN Security Council in 1950 and 1953, biographical notes on Chinese generals, and letters to Frederick from the National Committee on US-China Relations.
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Hale Family
Papers consist of biographical materials, artwork, artifacts, correspondence, speeches, photographs, writings, and memorabilia created or kept by Hale Family members and their Everett, Beecher, Gilman, Hooker, Perkins, Stowe, and Westcott relatives. Materials on China include the letters of U.S. Commissioner to China Alexander Hill Everett and his wife Lucretia Orne Peabody Everett to Sarah Preston Everett Hale from Macao, Hong Kong, and Canton (1846-48).
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Ruth V. Hemenway (1894-1974)
Medical missionary, teacher, and physician. The papers (1924-1979) consist of twenty diaries (1924-42), which provide a detailed record of the eighteen years Hemenway spent as a medical missionary in China. They describe medical and surgical cases, customs and rural culture, and the political upheaval of pre-WWII China. The diaries are rich with poignant and perceptive pictures of Chinese village life, of modernized urban life, and China during wartime. The diaries also reflect her own personal struggle with isolation and discrimination.
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Lamont-Corliss Family
Include letters to newspapers from Michael Lindsay on the situation in China in the late 1940s, and predictions about the outcome of the civil war. Lindsay's paper on "Military Prospects in a Chinese Civil War" is also included.
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Edith M. Lerrigo (1910-1989)
YWCA executive, YWCA worker, and social welfare worker. Materials on China in the papers (1922-1989) include correspondence to Lerrigo (some in Chinese), news articles, notes for her speeches, and materials on Christianity in China from her work as an advisory staff member to the YWCA in China.
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Anne Morrow Lindbergh (1906-2001)
Smith Class 1928, author, poet, and aviator. In 1930 Lindbergh became the first American woman to earn a first class glider pilot's license. She and her husband Charles were the first to fly from Africa to South America in the 1930s, and they explored polar air routes from North America to Asia and Europe. In 1934 Lindbergh published her first book, North to the Orient, based on her flights to China and Japan with Charles in 1931. Materials related to the creation of North to the Orient are well represented in the collection.
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Elmina Rose Lucke (1889-1987)
Professor, social work and social studies; founder and director, Delhi School of Social Work; consultant, social work education; YWCA official. Lucke traveled around the world studying social science and teaching with a grant from the American Historical Association in 1930-31. She was also a delegate to the Pan-Pacific and Southeast Asia Women's Association. Materials on China include Lucke's correspondence from a 1931 visit to China.
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Annetta Thompson Mills (1853-1929)
Missionary and teacher. In 1884 she married a missionary to Chefoo, China, and in 1887 she founded the Chefoo School for the Deaf. Mills administered the Chefoo School until her retirement circa 1924. She lived in Kuling for several years and 1926 moved to Nanking where her son, Samuel, ran the language school for new missionaries. Following the Nanking Incident in 1927, Mills left China and lived with her son, Roger, in Chicago, until her death. As of 1989 the school still existed, renamed Yantai School for the Deaf. This collection consists primarily of materials about her life and Yantai (Chefoo) School for the Deaf in Yantai, China. Also included are documents pertaining to Anna Aschenbach's visit to China in 1987 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the school.
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Patsy T. Mink (1927-2002)
Lawyer, legislator, local official. Mink served in the Hawaii State Senate from 1962 to1964, and in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1965 to 1977 and from 1990 to 2002. The Patsy Mink Papers are primarily related to her professional and public life, dating from 1965 to 1982. The collection includes materials on relations with Vietnam and China..
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Elisabeth Luce Moore (1903-2002)
Journalist; editor; trustee, State University of New York; YWCA official; international relations specialist. Elisabeth Luce was born in China to Presbyterian Board missionaries. Moore worked with the YWCA, serving as chair of its Foreign Division in 1944. She also served as vice-president of United Services to China, and as trustee of the China Institute of America, the Asia Foundation, and the United Board for Christian Higher Education. She received numerous awards for her work, among them the Order of the Brilliant Star from the People's Republic of China. Materials on China include travel files on China (including correspondence, photographs, clippings and notes, all dating from 1950-72).
[Note: The following collection has not been fully processed or described and therefore may be difficult to use. Collection is stored offsite; researchers must give 48 hours advance notice.]
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Ethel Smith Newman (1888-1956)
Missionary teacher. In 1915 Newman accepted a teaching position with the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, fulfilling her ambition to become a missionary. Initially stationed in the Ungkung mission in the Kwangtung (Guangdong) province of southeast China, she met a missionary physician, Henry Newman, who she married in 1916. Henry staffed hospitals while Ethel taught at girls' schools. Ethel continued to teach as she raised her four children. In 1918 and 1919, her husband worked in Siberia to aid with a typhus outbreak while Ethel and the children spent time in the United States. The family returned to mission in 1920, taking posts in China's Jiangsu province, and resettled in the United States permanently in 1925. The Ethel Smith Newman papers consist of original correspondence from Ethel to her family, which recounts day-to-day events of missionary life, detailing travels, work, civil unrest, the missionary household, and culture clash in an era of world war and growing anti-imperialism. The letters were later published in the volume Dear Folks at Home (2005), which contains in the preface an overview of Ethel Smith Newman's missionary career.
[Note: The following collection has not been fully processed or described and therefore may be difficult to use. Collection is stored offsite; researchers must give 48 hours advance notice.]
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Helen Begley Nixon (1900-1961)
Red Cross official, World War II relief worker, and Chief Advisor of the Women's Bureau of the American military government in Korea, where she helped re-establish the Korean Red Cross. The limited amount of material on China in the papers (1945-1951) dates primarily from 1949 and includes newspaper clippings, a radio broadcast transcript on the political situation in China, and a letter from Helen to a Senator comparing the situation in China to that of Korea, and arguing for aid to China.
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Peabody Family
Consists of correspondence, mostly to Maria Chase, a friend and neighbor of the three Peabody sisters. Maria Chase's sister, Rebecca Chase Kinsman, the wife of a trader, Nathaniel Kinsman (1840), lived in Macao with her husband in the 1840s. Her letters (1843-46) focus on the voyage, daily events in the household, and descriptions of society life in Macao, with some observations on Macao itself interspersed throughout. The published letters also include illustrations of Macao and a published journal.
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Beatrice Farnsworth Powers (1880-1967)
Nurse, medical missionary, teacher. Papers (1887-1967) include correspondence, photographs, memorabilia, and writings documenting nursing work in the Grenfell Mission, Labrador (1912), and in Changsha, China (1913-1915) while Powers was nursing superintendent at Yale-in-China Hospital. Materials on China include letters from Yale-in-China Hospital, her journal, and her photograph album (1913-15).
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Florence Rose (1903-1969)
Public relations specialist, birth control activist, and assistant to Margaret Sanger. In 1937 Rose traveled to Asia to coordinate public health conferences that would promote family planning. Rose became a minor celebrity after she survived the initial Japanese bombing of Shanghai and narrowly escaped war-torn China on a U.S. battleship with a few other American refugees in August of 1937. Her lively letters from this period document bombings and evacuations, describe Shanghai when occupied by the Japanese, and illustrate the poor health conditions of Chinese refugees. The papers (1832-1970) also include newspaper articles from China Critic and other publications on topics like overpopulation, marriage, and birth control in China.
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Mabel Milham Roys (1878-1956)
Missionary and YWCA worker. Roys earned her B.A. from Smith College in 1900 and married Dr. Charles K. Roys in 1904. The Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of the U.S. appointed Roys and her husband as missionaries to Shantung, China, where they served from 1904 to 1920. The collection includes letters, writings, memorabilia, and photographs mainly documenting her life and work as a missionary in China. These materials contain information about Chinese culture, social conditions, and politics, along with the family's social and domestic life. There is also a folder of clippings and a typescript documenting Elizabeth Roys Williams' trip to China in 1981.
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Florence Rena Sabin (1871-1953)
Physician, professor, and public health specialist. The small amount on China within the papers (1872-1985) focuses on United China Relief, and the necessity of American medical aid in China. Materials include a 1941 bulletin, a manuscript of a radio broadcast, a United China Relief progress report, a booklet describing conditions in China and urging support, and a pamphlet on "The Purposes and Program of United China Relief."
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Margaret Sanger (1879-1966)
Nurse and birth control advocate. There are several folders of printed materials (1933-1965) about China in Series V. COUNTRIES AND REGIONS of the unfilmed portion of the Papers. There is scattered correspondence in the Microfilmed portion of the Papers with various Chinese agencies, organizations, and individuals.
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Adaline Pendleton Satterthwaite (1917-2005)
Physician and birth control advocate. In 1947, Satterthwaite and her family traveled to China as medical missionaries, where she was involved in Barefoot Doctors, a UNICEF program that trained villagers to administer basic medical care to their communities. She continued her work in China following the death of her husband in 1949, returning to the U.S. in 1951. The collection is rich in materials documenting Satterthwaite's work in family planning in several countries, including China. Some correspondence in Chinese.
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Grace Gallatin Seton-Thompson (1872-1959)
Author, travel writer, feminist, suffragist, and WWI relief worker. Seton-Thompson traveled extensively in 1920s and 30s, to remote areas of China, the Far East, Indochina, Hawaii, Egypt and Latin America, and published several books about her travels, including Chinese Lanterns (1924). A small amount of her correspondence relates to China, while the collection also includes clippings and notes on her China travels. Also included is an essay on Chinese medicine and information on Dr. Mary Stone, medical missionary to China.
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Elisabeth Telling (1892-1965)
Artist, traveler, ethnographer. The Elisabeth Telling Papers (1902-1965) include extensive correspondence (1902-36) with her family describing her travels; diaries (1902-65); photographs and slides; writings; and her artwork. Materials from her travels in China include correspondence (1930-31) and portraits.
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Ruth Dietrich Tuttle (1887-1984)
Author, pacifist, and feminist. The Tuttle papers (1889-1984) contain writings, including an unpublished autobiography; photographs; speeches; research material; and records from Tuttle's involvement with various peace organizations. Material on China consists of thirty photographs, letters to her family from Beijing (1920-24), and letters from Chinese students (1922-27).
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Upton Family
Papers include correspondence, diaries, and notes by Cornelia Upton which document her travels in America, Hawaii, Alaska, Africa, and the Far East (1876-1927). There are a number of interesting letters to Cornelia Upton written by missionaries in China.
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Hyla S. Watters (1893-1987)
Medical missionary and physician. The papers (1892-1991) document her work as a medical missionary in China and Liberia. China material describes medical work, Chinese culture and daily life, the Lindberghs' visit in 1931, the Japanese invasion, and the Communist invasion. The papers also include a large amount of material on the Nanking Language School and the General Hospital in Wuhu, Anwei, and letters to family (1924-48).
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Ruth Frances Woodsmall (1883-1963)
World YWCA worker (1917-1914), and Chief of Women's Affairs for the US High Commissioner for Occupied Germany (1945-1959). Woodsmall also worked for the Commission on Christian Education in Japan. The Papers' material on China (1930-48) includes school reports, interviews and reports from the Laymen's Foreign Mission Inquiry in China,(1932) YWCA organization reports, correspondence, and photographs, lending insight into how the YWCA functioned in China.
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Women's International Democratic Federation (1945-)
Pacifist organization. The Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF) was founded in Paris in 1945. An outgrowth of an opposition to fascism, it was organized around three major concerns: international peace, child welfare, and the status of women. There are publications from affiliates in China, with four pamphlets published in 1965 on Chinese women in agriculture, industry, political activities, and family life. The pamphlets contain photographs, and minimal text.
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YWCA of the U.S.A. (1906-)
Social service organization, women's advocacy organization, civic improvement organization, community service organization, educational and intercultural exchange organization. The Young Women's Christian Association of the United States of America is the U.S. national affiliate of the World YWCA. The YWCA of the USA worked in China from its earliest days as an organization. The collection includes extensive material on China in both microfilm and originals in Record Group V., including A Study of the YWCA in China (1890-1930), speeches, minutes, and staff reports from the field (1917-41). The latter are a particularly rich source of information about social and political status of women in China, as well as major events in China during the first half of the 20th century.
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Subject Collections

Countries Collection

Focuses on the status of women, women's organizations, and feminist movements in over 140 countries. The Collection includes a small amount of material on the Republic of China, focusing on women's place in the country and women's associations there. The Collection's material on the People's Republic of China includes US Department of State pamphlets on "Red China"; student papers written c. 1970 on sex roles in China and other related topics; newspaper articles and clippings (predominantly from 1958-1961); pamphlets on Madame Chiang Kai-Shek; and booklets on women in China.
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Education Collection

Includes three folders of pamphlets and other printed materials, 1918-71.
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Medicine Collection

Comprised entirely of printed materials such as bibliographies, biographies, pamphlets, and articles pertaining to women in the field of medicine, including physicians, nurses, and medical missionaries. Women's hospital, colleges, and medical societies are also documented. The Collection's small amount of material on China consists primarily of Chinese Christian women in medicine circa 1921-1925, documented in missionary magazines.
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Religion Collection

Comprised of bibliographies, articles, pamphlets, biographies, newspaper clippings and tracts all pertaining to women's roles within religion and the church. Material on China includes Kiangsi Women's Conference report (1918-19), and Foochow Women's Conference records (1913).
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Smith College Archives

Ginling College

Sister College to Smith College. Contains notes, letters, reports, photographs, articles, and bulletins from Alumnae Committee members, Ginling College students and faculty, and others involved with Ginling. The collection includes many letters from alumnae committees regarding the development of Ginling College, as well as minutes from meetings. Insight into the political turmoil rampant in China during the period can be gained from the reports of Ginling administrators and faculty. The Ginling College budgets are also included, with the breakdown of spending on various areas. Photographs of buildings, students, and faculty in various time periods, accompanied by descriptions, give one a feel for campus life.
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Dr. Angie Martin Myers

In the records on the Smith College Association for Christian Work. The collection includes Myers' correspondence during her time as missionary in Amoy, China, as well as her photograph album, which contains superb images of the Chinese landscape, people, and towns.

Additional Resources

For secondary sources, see the Browsing and Reference collections in the Special Collections Reading Room.